1) Find the ring. This is a two carbon chain with no double bond. If two or more equally long chains are present, the chain with maximum number of substituent is selected as the parent chain. Thus, by putting a hyphen before the name obtained, we also write down the number of carbon atoms carrying the lateral chain. Word root is the basic unit of name and represents the number of carbon atoms present in the parent chain. Hydrocarbons, or compounds based on a chain of hydrogen and carbon, are the basis of organic chemistry. 2) If there are substituents: a. The longest continuous chain may turn in any direction. Each year, photosynthesis by plants and algae converts more than 100 billion metric tons of CO 2 and H 2 O into cellulose and other plant products. Alkanes - saturated hydrocarbons The names of the straight chain saturated hydrocarbons for up to a 12 carbon chain are shown below. Example lower left: Initially you may think that the six carbons in a straight line is the longest chain. There are only three steps in nomenclature of all organic compounds. C1 → Methane → Meth-C2 → Ethane → Eth- Carbohydrates are the most abundant biomolecules on earth. Give the number of the longest chain in each of the following atom arrangements and number the carbons in the chain. How to Name a Hydrocarbon Chain Using the IUPAC Method. The first step in naming hydrocarbons is to identify the longest continuous carbon chain. Count the carbons and name chain as if it were a straight chain alkane. The word roots for different carbon chains are derived by leaving ‘ane’ from the name of carbon chain of respective molecule. The names of the substituents formed by the removal of one hydrogen from the end of the chain is obtained by changing the suffix -ane to -yl. Thus the IUPAC name of … The structure is therefore: Example 3: Write the structural formula for ethane-1,2-diol. Hence it should be indicated by prefix 2-carboxy. of Carbons: Root Name: Formula C n H 2n+2: Structure Some unbranched Chains and their Names The word root of one carbon chain is obtained by leaving ane from methane i.e., meth–and similarly for others e.g. There is no need to number the substituent. Step-I : Selection of parent chain: The longest continuous carbon chain is selected as the parent chain. The -OH group is attached to the number 1 carbon. The carbon skeleton is a 3 carbon chain with no carbon-carbon double bonds, but a methyl group on the number 2 carbon. Sulfonic acids and their analogues Eg. So one of the carboxylic acid group is treated as side chain. ASSIGNMENT 11-1 NAME: _____ NAMING HYDROCARBONS 1. Add the prefix cyclo- to the name to get the full base name of the ring. Chapter 11 Carbohydrates. Parent Chain is the longest continuous chain of carbon atom containing functional group (or, and) multiple bonds (if present). Look again and count the red carbons to find seven carbons as the longest chain to give heptane as the root name. The longest continuous carbon chain containing as many functional groups, double bonds, triple bonds, side chains and substituents as possible is to be selected as parent chain. Write the name of the corresponding alkane and the name of the alkyl group together or put a hyphen between them. Here, the principle functional groups is carboxylic acid and the parent chain is three carbon chain including two carboxylic acids. 1 substituent the carbon the substituent is attached to is carbon-1. The names of alkyl groups attached as branches are then prefixed to the name of the parent alkane and position of the substituents is indicated by the appropriate numbers. Finally add prefix(es) to the name if there are side chains or substituents on the parent chain. Number the carbon atoms of the parent chain in such a way that the branched carbon atoms get the lowest possible numbers. 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