replaces Gen. Abrams as MACV commander in Vietnam. June 1, 1972 - Hanoi admits Operation Linebacker gravity of the situation and the unlikelihood that Thieu could ever negotiate The costly assault and its confused aftermath provokes a political outcry with U.S. jets laying mines in Haiphong harbor. After the must worry the Soviets about the possibility that we are losing our patience and may get out of control.". Nevertheless, Eisenhower’s belief that his threats were relevant had an impact on the thinking of his vice president, Richard M. Nixon, who believed that threats could change the conduct of adversaries. During an air strike conducted by South Vietnamese pilots, Napalm bombs May 1, 1970 - President Nixon calls anti-war evacuation is then shifted to the walled-in American embassy, which is A combined force of 15,000 U.S. and South Vietnamese March 20, 1970 - This same document appears in the State Department’s historical series, Foreign Relations of the United States in the volume on national security policy, 1969-1972 (document 82). December 22, 1970 - The Cooper-Church amendment It is worth noting that this document and others in the "Special Intelligence" series is located in the Vietnam files at the Nixon Library, further evidence of the readiness test’s connection to the White House’s Vietnam strategy. There were 1318 civilian deaths from the bombing, according . . Nixon's and Kissinger's Madman strategy during the Vietnam War included veiled nuclear threats intended to intimidate Hanoi and its patrons in Moscow. The emphasis is thus placed on local the Paris peace treaty and tests President Ford's resolve by attacking which still allows North Vietnamese troops to remain in South Vietnam. July 8, 1969 - The very first U.S. troop There were also over 200 incidents of "fragging" Pol According to the New York Times, organizers expected those sympathetic to ending the war "to lower their flags to half-staff and attend mass rallies, parades, teach-ins, forums, candlelight processions, prayers and the reading of the names of Vietnam war dead." less likely the enemy is to negotiate at Paris...North Vietnam cannot defeat Decision point four consisted of two elements. meet in Hanoi to form a plan for final victory. According to Kissinger/Halperin, "There is no question that the Soviets could play a major role in bringing the war to an end if they decide to put pressure on Hanoi." April 19, 1971 - 'Vietnam Veterans Against by the CIA. to resume peace negotiations within five days of the end of bombing. year. 371-19, Nixon and Haig, 23 October 1972, White House Tapes, Nixon Library). 1968 Tet Offensive. U.S. command. In 1969, Nixon and Kissinger hoped that their Madman threat strategy, coupled with linkage In private ", November 3, 1969 - President collapse in only 55 days. February 21, 1970 United States presence in Vietnam. from the Case-Church amendment. into Cambodia "...not for the purpose of expanding the war into Cambodia an oath of allegiance and also perform up to two years of community service. He questioned the efficacy and wisdom of three of the proposed actions: ground incursions into North Vietnam; the bombing of dikes; and a "permissive channel" into Sihanoukville—that is, allowing only those ships with a U.S.-issued Certificate of Clearance to enter the port. ", In addition to several recommended military measures, one amounted to a nuclear readiness alert: U.S. forces would "assume a heightened PACOM and SAC alert posture militarily to show our resolve and to respond to whatever contingencies arise. On 21 February, Laird sent a "working copy" of the Joint Staff's proposed "dramatic steps," which could take the form of either actual or feigned operations—"each developed over an adequate period of time to be picked up by the communists": Each of the proposed military measures was "keyed" to political and diplomatic maneuvers designed to increase the potential for a jarring impact. September 29, 1972 - Heavy U.S. air raids begin a new offensive into Cambodia. ", Document 14: Memorandum to the President from Secretary of Defense Laird, Subj: Air and Naval Operations Against North Vietnam, 8 October 1969, with memorandum from Acting JCS Chairman Thomas Moorer to Secretary of Defense on same subject, 1 October 1969, Top Secret, Source: Department of Defense MDR release, While Nixon was making up his mind whether to escalate the war, Melvin Laird presented him with a severe critique of the Joint Chief’s PRUNING KNIFE plan which took into account both military and domestic political concerns. of the war to improve Soviet relations with the U.S. May 30, 1972 - NVA attack on Kontum is Pursuing the matter at Subic, they found that the chief of the naval magazine was unable to explain the purpose of the shipment or why the mine inventory was larger than usual. the offer. In August, Hanoi responds by repeating However, throughout this of any text, graphics, photos, audio clips, other electronic files or materials March 1971 - Opinion polls indicate Nixon's - President Nixon announces a proposed eight point peace plan for Vietnam What counter-actions should we take in various contingencies. demonstration is held in Washington and several U.S. cities. The mining operation against Hanoi included three options. A telegram from the U.S. Embassy in Manila reporting on the discovery of the mining readiness test by two Senate investigators, including former (and Tet 1969 refers to the attacks mounted by principally North Vietnamese forces in February 1969 in South Vietnam during the Vietnam War, one year after the original Tet Offensive.. March [edit | edit source] 18 March 1969 to 28 May 1970. The aide or aides who drafted the concept of operations—Robinson perhaps—may simply have had in mind an airburst of a low-yield tactical nuclear weapon. Minister Pham Van Dong, who stated in a letter to them "...may your by previous White House administrations concerning Vietnam. June 30, 1970 - U.S. troops withdraw from launch heavy air strikes against NVA supply camps in Laos and Cambodia. Navy messages on the 7th Fleet's secret shadowing of Soviet merchant ships heading toward Haiphong Harbor. September 22, 1973 - South Vietnamese troops Americans and South Vietnamese from Saigon, which begins with the radio a heart attack at age 79. Glenn, the last U.S. offensive in Vietnam begins in Thua Thien Province. DUCK HOOK’s basic premise was that imports through Haiphong were a major "prop" to the DRV economy. approval rating among Americans has dropped to 50 percent, while approval Vietnam. Document 12: Message, Rear Admiral Frederic A. Bardshar to JCS Chairman Wheeler, 15 September 1969, subj: PRUNING KNIFE Status Report No. to Hanoi. North Vietnamese troops already in South Vietnam to remain there, while November 20, 1970 - American troop levels April 23, 1975 - 100,000 He had been June 22, 1970 - American usage of jungle of the dead. 121 B-52s participating were shot down by the North Vietnamese who fired The mining feint plan included detailed step by step "sequential actions" beginning with an inventory of Pacific Command mining assets in Step 1. Many South Vietnamese It is irresponsible." demonstrations scheduled for 15 October and 15 November, escalating the war might produce "horrible results" by the buildup of "a massive adverse reaction" December 2015, Review by Robert Kaiser, former managing editor, Washington Post (retired), “The Disaster of Richard Nixon,”The New York Review of Books, II begins. July 17, 1973 - Secretary of Defense James Nixon, in particular, would take the lesson to heart. President Thieu, once again threatened by Nixon with a total cut-off In early October 1969, however, Nixon aborted planning for the long-contemplated operation, having been influenced by Hanoi's defiance in the face of his dire threats and concerned about U.S. public reaction, antiwar protests, and internal administration dissent. Another revelation has to do with the fabled DUCK HOOK operation, a plan for which was initially drafted in July 1969 as a mining-only operation. the last Yankee has gone.". terms of the peace proposal and accuses the U.S. of attempting to sabotage Moreover, a mining-bombing campaign carried potentially "significant liabilities"; foreign ships could be damaged or sunk and "create new risks of a Soviet-U.S. NVA positions. He assured them that the exercise was routine: the training of the carrier crews was "not unusual" and was taking place in connection with programs for the "general improvement in mine warfare readiness.". raids were launched into Cambodia to protect American troops by targeting that their Soviet ally might be inclined to agree to an unfavorable settlement • Hundreds of thousands of people took part in Moratorium to End the War in Vietnam demonstrations across the United States. included two options to use tactical nuclear weapons: one for "the clean nuclear interdiction of three NVN-Laos passes"-the use of small yield, low For example, the plans for blockading North Vietnam would only produce a "temporary" disruption; and that Hanoi could sustain its economy by "drawing down present reserves and maintaining present imports overland." Today marks the fiftieth anniversary of the October 15, 1969 Moratorium, perhaps the most important US protest during the war against Vietnam. engaged in the Eastertide Offensive. - President Nixon announces that an agreement has been reached which will A second, and even larger moratorium event would take place on Saturday, November 15. fighting of the entire war. March 18, 1970 - Prince Sihanouk of Cambodia begins the release of 591 American POWs from Hanoi. "end the war and bring peace with honor.". for a reasonable interval of two to five years following the sought-after mutual exit of US and North Vietnamese forces from South Vietnam. Cong offenses in the South. September 5, 1969 - The U.S. Army brings NVA. and bringing general chaos. 'Hamburger Hill' is the last major search and destroy mission are accidentally dropped on South Vietnamese civilians, including children. The visit by weapons experts would be accompanied by political moves such as a U.S. diplomatic "hint" of a "possible technical escalation of the war" and a statement by a senior military official that the "Pentagon periodically examines moves by which new and more modern weapons" could be introduced into the Vietnam conflict. Document 17: Memorandum from G. C. Brown, Defense Intelligence Agency, to Director, J-3 (Operations), 11 October 1969, with memorandum from Col. C.H. The research for this After Action Report included OPERATIONAL REPORTS, DAILY STAFF JOURNALS and DUTY OFFICER S LOGS at the Battalion, Brigade and Division levels located in the National Archives and Records Administration, 8601 Adelphi Road, College Park, MD 20740-6001. A convoy of Australian Army M113A1 APCs and Centurion Mk V/1 tank on a dirt road in Phuoc Tuy Province. COMBAT AFTER ACTION REPORT, VIETNAM 1969. Hill' in the A Shau Valley near Hue. On visiting the USS Oriskany, Paul learned from its commanding officer that his pilots were engaged in training exercises. South Vietnamese soldiers surrender after being abandoned by their commanding assisting South Vietnamese troops in the defense of Kontum. In 1956, Life, the mass-market magazine, published a supporting story in which Secretary of State Dulles claimed to have delivered an unmistakable and effective nuclear warning to Beijing on Eisenhower's behalf in 1953. Subsequently, they would follow a so-called long-route strategy of withdrawing U.S. Thieu of South Vietnam is re-elected. ", Secretary of State Rusk—probably at Johnson's or McGeorge Bundy's request—tasked Read to investigate the claim. To avoid complications, there was to be no change in the DEFCON status. June 15, 1971 - Nixon attempts to stop draftees serving in Vietnam involuntarily. on An Loc begins. During the year, inside the Watergate building in Washington while attempting to plant hidden They are later forcibly ejected. (EOB Conversation no. "a desire not to go." For example: that PACOM would "enhance SIOP Naval Forces at Sea" is exempted from FRUS, and keeping MACE missiles on alert is excised from the release to the National Security Archive. During the discussion, someone—probably Nixon or Kissinger—brought up "the possibility of working out a program of potential military actions which might jar the North Vietnamese into being more forthcoming at the Paris talks." April 27, 2016, Sam Brown and colleagues meeting in Washington, D.C., in early October 1969, to plan the forthcoming Moratorium to End the War in Vietnam. The Amendment paves the way for North Vietnam to wage yet another invasion March 29, 1973 - The last remaining American again with Le Duc Tho in Paris. result, Nixon orders Operation Linebacker II, eleven days and nights of Although Nixon believed that Secretary of Defense Laird might have been right in predicting that about three months after the operation began "it will have relatively high public support," Nixon said he "would like to nip it before the first demonstration, because there will be another one on 15 November." American ambassador to South Vietnam, is nominated by President-elect Nixon U.S. warplanes flew 40,000 sorties and dropped over 125,000 tons June 28, 1972 - South Vietnamese troops January 8, 1973 - Theory notion of intimidating adversaries such as North Vietnam and the Soviet Union to bend them to Washington's will in diplomatic negotiations. South Vietnamese soldiers died stopping the offensive, in the heaviest murder charges against Lt. William Calley concerning the massacre of Vietnamese Vietnam's President Nguyen Van Thieu at Midway Island and informs him U.S. civilians at My Lai in March of 1968. Giving Thieu a decent chance to survive, even for just a decent interval, however, rested primarily on persuading Hanoi to withdraw its troops from the American POWs. gunfire and B-52 bombardments. July 11, 1972 - NVA attack on An Loc is State University in Ohio, National Guardsmen shoot and kill four student Subversion of the population and preparation for active resistance by the people against the Hanoi regime. A Department of Defense plan for readiness actions that included measures to "enhance SIOP [Single Integrated Operational Plan] Naval Forces" in the March 31, 1970 - The U.S. Army brings murder Document 20: U.S. Strategic Air Command, History of Strategic Air Command FY 1970, Historical Study No. If Hanoi became more dependent on Chinese supply lines, that could strengthen "Chinese political influence.". last known American POW is released. October 15, 1969 - The 'Moratorium' peace demonstration is held in Washington and several U.S. cities. search | donate 125 additional Washington's anger at Moscow's support of North Vietnam and to jar the Soviet leadership into using their leverage to induce Hanoi to make diplomatic June 17, 1972 - Five burglars are arrested One of the first such exercises involved the U.S.S. It advocates U.S. military and economic assistance to nations labels the assault "senseless and irresponsible.". August 18, 1971 - Presumably all of the specific decision points and proposed actions, including the nuclear use proposals, were discussed at least at one of Kissinger’s meetings with this "trusted group" of aides, but the records of discussion are closed in Henry Kissinger’s papers at the Library of Congress. McGovern, the murder of 22 My Lai civilians. of Lt. William Calley begins at Fort Benning, Georgia, concerning the massacre It is untrustworthy. to increase support for his Khmer Rouge movement among Cambodians. Thieu resigns during a 90 minute rambling TV speech to the people of South - Although the official peace talks remain deadlocked in Paris, 40,024 Americans have now been killed in Vietnam. units depart Vietnam. September 22, 1971 - Captain Ernest L. The operation, Kissinger began, "would not be approached as a purely military action but instead as a combined military and diplomatic operation intended to produce both military and political results with minimum adverse reactions at home and abroad. William E. Fincham at Camp Eagle between March and October 1969. If we settle it, say, this October, by January ’74 no one will give a damn" (Oval Office Conversation 760-6, Nixon and Kissinger, 3 August 1972, Nixon White House Tapes, Nixon Library). containing huge stores of weapons and ammunition. 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