There are also provincial councils that are elected through direct and general elections for four years. Most of the highest points are in the east consisting of fertile mountain valleys. [309] Currently under development are the CASA-1000 project which will transmit electricity from Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan, and the Turkmenistan-Afghanistan-Pakistan-India (TAPI) gas pipeline. [232][233] In the same period, Afghanistan became the 30th highest nation in terms of female representation in the National Assembly. The modern Constitution of Afghanistan, however, states that the word "Afghan" shall apply to every citizen of Afghanistan.[31][7]. It is also a municipality, forming part of … La dernière modification de cette page a été faite le 18 septembre 2020 à 18:38. In the 1960s the area of BagrāmÄ« east of the city was designated an industrial area, although this suffered extensive damage and looting by factional fighters in 1993–94. [52] The Ghaznavid dynasty was overthrown by the Ghurids, whose architectural achievements included the remote Minaret of Jam. [350] It was reported recently that about 80,000 people are missing limbs. [418] The Afghanistan Cricket Board (ACB) is the official governing body of the sport and is headquartered in Kabul. [155][156][157][158][159] On 28 December 2014, NATO formally ended ISAF combat operations in Afghanistan and transferred full security responsibility to the Afghan government. The country has three rail links: one, a 75-kilometer (47 mi) line from Mazar-i-Sharif to the Uzbekistan border;[329] a 10-kilometer (6.2 mi) long line from Toraghundi to the Turkmenistan border (where it continues as part of Turkmen Railways); and a short link from Aqina across the Turkmen border to Kerki, which is planned to be extended further across Afghanistan. [133][134][135] The majority of Afghans supported the American invasion of their country. Investments since 2002 in public facilities and private real estate have transformed the city centre, with previously leafy avenues and elegant villas being obliterated by speculative high-rise structures. Among the most well known are the Great Mosque of Herat, the Blue Mosque, the Minaret of Jam, the Chil Zena, the Qala-i Bost in Lashkargah, the ancient Greek city of Ai-Khanoum. The mission of the Uniformed Police is to ensure security within Afghanistan, prevent crime, and protect property. [44] Much of the northeastern and southern areas of the country remained dominated by Buddhist culture. [103] Heavy air bombardment destroyed many countryside villages, millions of landmines were planted,[104] and some cities such as Herat and Kandahar were also damaged from bombardment. National Independence Day is celebrated on 19 August to mark the Anglo-Afghan Treaty of 1919 under King Amanullah Khan and the country's full independence. Villages typically have a headman (malik), a master for water disribution (mirab) and a religious teacher (mullah). As part of a process of modernization during the first half of the 20th century, investments were made in various industrial enterprises, including textile mills and a mechanized brick-production plant. To the south and west of the Hindu Kush flow a number of streams that are tributaries of the Indus River,[176] such as the Helmand River. By Reuters Staff. [89], In September 1979, PDPA General Secretary Taraki was assassinated in an internal coup orchestrated by fellow Khalq member, then-Prime minister Hafizullah Amin, who assumed the new general secretary of the People's Democratic Party. The Afghan Defense University houses various educational establishments for the Afghan Armed Forces, including the National Military Academy of Afghanistan. Bomb blast kills deputy governor of Afghanistan's capital. In this quiz you’ll be presented with the names of 195 capital cities. It is believed that the astronomer Alexandrian knew about it as early as second century CE. [343], According to the Human Development Index, Afghanistan is the 15th least developed country in the world. [215] Urbanization in Afghanistan has been noted to be different than traditional urbanization, in that it's centered on a few cities rather than evenly spread out nationwide. Kabul is the capital of Afghanistan and its largest city, located in the eastern section of the country. Browse more videos. [119] The Taliban were condemned internationally for the harsh enforcement of their interpretation of Islamic sharia law, which resulted in the brutal treatment of many Afghans, especially women. [51] Mahmud made Ghazni into an important city and patronized intellectuals such as the historian Al-Biruni and the poet Ferdowsi. You’ll need to match them to their countries. [367] Another popular dress is the chapan which acts as a coat. [105] After the Soviet withdrawal, the civil war ensued until the communist regime under People's Democratic Party leader Mohammad Najibullah collapsed in 1992. There are a number of bus stations from which private long-distance bus services operate to other provinces. In a mosque on the outskirts of Afghanistan’s capital, Kabul, a preacher crowed to assembled men and boys: The Taliban, with their primitive guns, brought foreign forces to their knees, he said, and the Afghan government is next. [1] Dari, which is a variety of and mutually intelligible with Persian (and very often called 'Farsi' by some Afghans like in Iran) functions as the lingua franca in Kabul as well as in much of the northern and northwestern parts of the country. [164] A report titled Body Count concluded that 106,000–170,000 civilians have been killed as a result of the fighting in Afghanistan at the hands of all parties to the conflict. “America with … Road links in the north played a large part in a growing cotton and textile industry. These pronunciations involve assimilation, wherein /f/ becomes its assimilated allophone [v] before a voiced consonant. [189] Several regions are designated protected areas; there are three National Parks: Band-e Amir, Wakhan and Nuristan. During World War I, when Afghanistan was neutral, Habibullah Khan was met by officials of the Central Powers in the Niedermayer–Hentig Expedition, to declare full independence from the United Kingdom, join them and attack British India, as part of the Hindu–German Conspiracy. Assistance to rebuild the war-torn country ( requires login ) could only be passed through a decree! 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