Schmidt, N. P., M. E. O’Neal, P. F. Anderson, D. Lagos, D. Voegtlin, W. Bailey, P. Caragea, E. Cullen, C. DiFonzo, K. Elliot, et al. If the insecticide application fails to control the pest population, try to rule out other potential causes for an insecticide failure, such as incorrect insecticide rate or application method, unfavorable environmental conditions, or recolonization of a treated field by winged soybean aphids. These continued infestations by soybean aphid in parts of the Upper Midwest have resulted in a long history (i.e., about 17 yr) of selection pressure for development of insecticide resistance. South Dakota State University Extension, Research on resistance of soybean aphid (, The soybean aphid in China: a historical review, Elevated expression of esterase and cytochrome P450 are related with lambda-cyhalothrin resistance and lead to cross resistance in, Spray toxicity and risk potential of 42 commonly used formulations of row crop pesticides to adult honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae). In the long term, soybean aphid management must move beyond insecticide-based management toward true integrated pest management incorporating multiple, proactive tactics. If pyrethroid-resistance is suspected in an aphid population, products containing insecticides other than pyrethroids should be considered. The biology, impacts, and management of soybean aphid have been well reviewed (Ragsdale et al. Alternation of individual insecticide groups is generally preferred for insecticide resistance management (IRM) (IRAC 2012). They lay an egg inside an aphid, where the larvae eat the aphid … Synthetic pyrethroids are man-made insecticides created to mimic the chemical properties of … 2011, Hodgson et al. Data from NASS (2018); data do not include seed-applied insecticides (Douglas and Tooker 2015). Publication IPM 0060, North Central Soybean Research Program, Ankeny, IA, Enumerative and binomial sequential sampling plans for soybean aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae) in soybean, Field validation of speed scouting for soybean aphid, Management recommendations for soybean aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in the United States, Value of neonicotinoid seed treatments to US soybean farmers, Insecticide Resistance Action Committee (IRAC), General Principles of Insecticide Resistance Management from IRAC, IRAC International Insecticide Mixture Statement, IRAC Mode of Action Classification Scheme, 2018 field crop insect management guide. 2007) through decreased number of pods and seeds, and smaller seed size (Beckendorf et al. The most popular among gardeners means to control aphids on apple trees are the following drugs: Kinmiks is an insecticide that contains the main active ingredient beta-cypermethrin (from the group of pyrethroids, it is produced artificially), it affects both adult aphids … 2001) and potential facilitation of soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines Ichinohe, infestations (McCarville et al. Insecticide use on soybean in North America has increased dramatically in response to this pest (Ragsdale et al. Thrips are extremely minute insects, usually less than 1/16 inch when full-grown. 2015). In particular, the area of southwest Minnesota (i.e., Blue Earth, Brown, Cottonwood, Faribault, Martin, Redwood, Renville, and Watonwan counties) from which pyrethroid performance issues were first reported (Hanson et al. Robert L Koch, Erin W Hodgson, Janet J Knodel, Adam J Varenhorst, Bruce D Potter, Management of Insecticide-Resistant Soybean Aphids in the Upper Midwest of the United States, Journal of Integrated Pest Management, Volume 9, Issue 1, 2018, 23, https://doi.org/10.1093/jipm/pmy014. A., S. J. Bhusal, A. Lorenz, and R. L. Koch. Ribeiro, M. G. P. M., T. E. Hunt, and B. D. Siegfried. McCarville, M. T., M. E. O’Neal, and E. W. Hodgson. Koch, R., E. Hodgson, J. Knodel, and A. Varenhorst. However, pyrethroid-containing mixtures should generally be avoided for use against pyrethroid-resistant populations (IRAC 2012) (Fig. Yards which develop pests like aphids … Laboratory bioassays performed in 2017 confirmed resistance to pyrethroids in soybean aphid from the aforementioned states and Manitoba, Canada (R.L.K., unpublished data). 2008; Shuai & Wang 2005). If pyrethroid resistance is suspected in the aphid population, application of pyrethroid-containing mixtures (e.g., options C and D) may provide pest control, but the pyrethroid component of the product is compromised by resistance and use may provide additional selection pressure for further development of insecticide resistance. From vegetative growth through the R5 soybean growth stage, soybean fields should be scouted for soybean aphids on a regular schedule (every 7–10 d) (Hodgson et al. 2016) and biotypes of soybean aphid able to survive on some aphid-resistant soybean have been identified (Hesler et al. CHLORPYRIFOS (LORSBAN, NUFOS, YUMA) is available in several formulations registered for use as a foliar application in the dormant or delayed dormant period against aphids and scale in apples, scale … This graphic was modified from Hodgson and Koch (2018). 2010, Ragsdale et al. Aphids … Decision aide for management of soybean aphid with or without insecticide resistance. Furthermore, depending on factors such as relative efficacy, durations of residual activity, and levels of cross resistance, use of some mixtures could provide additional selection pressure for further development of insecticide resistance (IRAC 2012). For full access to this pdf, sign in to an existing account, or purchase an annual subscription. National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS). Image from Koch et al. Hesler, L. S., M. V. Chiozza, M. E. O’Neal, G. C. MacIntosh, K. J. Tilmon, D. I. Chandrasena, N. A. Tinsley, S. R. Cianzio, A. C. Costamagna, E. M. Cullen, et al. 3). Over recent years, the percentage of soybean acres that have been treated with insecticides, not including seed treatments, has been highest in Minnesota, followed by Iowa and North Dakota compared to other states in the Midwest Region (Fig. If fields were planted with neonicotinoid-treated seed, avoid application of neonicotinoid-containing products (e.g., options D and E) for the first foliar application to the field. However, the LC5 of beta-cypermethrin enhanced the interspecific inhibition of fecundity between the two aphid species. Cypermethrin is bio-degradable in soil and plants, but its effects can extend for weeks when applied to indoor inert surfaces. Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. This knowledge could contribute to rationalize application of insecticides and to optimize Integrated Pest Management in soybean. If a soybean field exceeds the economic threshold, use an effective insecticide at a labeled rate (IRAC 2009) (Fig. Nevertheless, such facilitated colonization-induced susceptibility could be modulated through exposure to the LC5 of beta-cypermethrin. In 2016 and 2017, further reports of failures of pyrethroid insecticides and/or laboratory confirmation of resistance occurred in Iowa, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Manitoba. 3). Wu, Z., D. Schenk-Hamlin, W. Zhan, D. W. Ragsdale, and G. E. Heimpel. 2011, Koch and Costamagna 2017). - Cypermethrin is a synthetic pyrethroid. 2013, McCarville et al. The continued validity of the 250-aphid-per-plant threshold is explained by Koch et al. However, in 2015 in Minnesota, failures of foliar-applied pyrethroid insecticides were reported and pyrethroid resistance was confirmed with laboratory bioassays using lambda-cyhalothrin and bifenthrin. Red-shaded counties indicate those from which reports of pyrethroid failures were received. In addition, an economic threshold of 250 aphids per plant with more than 80% of plants infested and aphid populations increasing was developed to optimize use of foliar insecticides for soybean aphid management (Ragsdale et al. 2017) has had chronically high soybean aphid populations (i.e., exceeding the economic threshold) every year, except 2003. 2017). Bahlai, C. A., W. van der Werf, M. O’Neal, L. Hemerik, and D. A. Landis. It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide, This PDF is available to Subscribers Only. These findings hinted that the pyrethroid insecticide beta-cypermethrin has the potential to mediate the interspecific competition between specialist and generalist aphids (at the sublethal … Ragsdale, D. W., B. P. McCornack, R. C. Venette, B. D. Potter, I. V. MacRae, E. W. Hodgson, M. E. O’Neal, K. D. Johnson, R. J. O’Neil, C. D. DiFonzo, et al. In the present study, we evaluated the impact of the insecticide beta-cypermethrin on interspecific interactions between the specialist aphid Aphis glycines and the generalist aphid Aulacorthum solani on soybean. 2013). For example, if a field was treated with a pyrethroid (Group 3A) and a follow-up insecticide application is needed, then an insecticide from different insecticide group, such as an organophosphate (Group 1B), should be selected. Title: Microsoft Word - Insecticide_Selection_Sugarcane_Aphid_2015.docx Created Date: 6/23/2015 8:08:16 PM Implementation of user-friendly scouting tools and other management tactics may decrease unnecessary exposure of the pest to insecticides and, in turn, reduce further development of insecticide resistance. Soybean aphid has developed resistance to pyrethroid (Group 3A) insecticides. Use of reduced rates of insecticide or improper use resulting in drift can result in aphids being exposed to low doses of insecticide, which can further increase selection pressure. 3). The LC50 values across all nine populations ranged from 0.6 to 24.57mg a.i./L. Integration of multiple preventative and therapeutic tactics (Pedigo and Rice 2009) for soybean aphid management will increase the sustainability of soybean production in the Upper Midwest. (2017) provided the first evidence for soybean aphid resistance to insecticides coupled with reports of these insecticides failing to control the pest in North America. As more is learned about the genetics and mechanisms underlying soybean aphid resistance to insecticides, recommendations for resistance management are likely to change. 2018, Varenhorst and Wagner 2018) (Table 1). 2018) have created an immediate challenge for effective soybean pest management and profitable soybean production. Table 1 lists insecticide groups and active ingredients available for soybean aphid management. Monitor the trees for mites when the weather is hot and dry and after … Hanson, A. 2010, Frewin et al. In response to the challenge posed by insecticide-resistant soybean aphids, we recommend several management strategies for minimizing further development of resistance and subsequent pest-induced crop losses: 1) scout and use the economic threshold to determine when to apply insecticides, 2) apply the insecticides properly, 3) assess efficacy 3–5 d after application, and 4) alternate to a different insecticide group if another application is required. What is Cypermethrin? 2012b, Clifton et al. Use the economic threshold (i.e., 250 aphids per plant with more than 80% of plants infested and aphid populations increasing) to determine if insecticides should be applied (Ragsdale et al. Moreover, the two species showed different spatial distribution on soybean seedlings. Aphids may be controlled by using a commercially prepared insecticidal soap product, neem oil extract or pyrethrin, which are all less toxic control options. (2018) documented resistance ratios greater than 20-fold, which could be considered moderate resistance. 2012, Pezzini and Koch 2015), pymetrozine (Group 9B) (Ohnesorg et al. States included had data available for the three survey years. Orantes, L. C., W.Zhang, M. A. R.Mian, and A. P. Michel. Reproduction of A. glycines was more likely inhibited by the interspecific interactions compared to A. solani. This area of Minnesota also receives significant numbers of pyrethroid insecticide applications to canning crops, which are often adjacent to soybean. Reliance on insecticide-based management of insect pests often results in development of insecticide resistance (Pedigo and Rice 2009). Biological Control Methods: Parasitic wasps (small wasps that are harmless to humans) are the best for killing aphids. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. Improvements in the efficiency of soybean aphid scouting, such as the potential for remote sensing (Alves et al. If insecticide resistance is not suspected in the aphid population, then the choice of insecticide could include the various labeled products (Table 1, Fig. However, the LC 5 of beta-cypermethrin enhanced the interspecific inhibition of fecundity between the two aphid … Due to the mobility of winged soybean aphids (Schmidt et al. However, availability of well-adapted, aphid-resistant soybean varieties remains low (McCarville et al. This pattern of greater pest pressure in Minnesota and neighboring states is further evidenced by data from NASS (2018). A., J. Menger-Anderson, C. Silverstein, B. D. Potter, I. V. MacRae, E. W. Hodgson, and R. L. Koch. Now if you treat mid or late season, you will get control of any current problem but it would be smart to apply more the following spring. 1) (Koch et al. Department of Entomology, University of Minnesota, Hodson Hall, Saint Paul, MN. However, soybean aphid management has relied primarily on organophosphates (Group 1B) and pyrethroids (Group 3A) (Hodgson et al. Aphis glycines mainly aggregated on the stem of soybean plant while A. solani colonized soybean leaves. Hodgson, E. W., B. P. McCornack, K. J. Tilmon, and J. Knodel. Furthermore, reports of pyrethroids failing to control soybean aphid in the field were noted from Minnesota and Iowa (Hanson et al. 1Based on review of soybean production guides from the Upper Midwest (Knodel et al. Insecticide use (i.e., percent of planted acres treated with insecticide) (top figure) and crop scouting for insects and mites (i.e., percent of planted acres scouted) (bottom figure) in soybean in the Midwestern Region of the United States. Table 1 lists the natural and conventional contact insecticides for the … 2018, Varenhorst and Wagner 2018). Soybean aphid has been actively managed since 2000, because of the potential for severe economic impact. A popular insecticide active ingredient that is used to eliminate a broad range of common household bugs is a synthetic pyrethroid known as Cypermethrin. Zeta-cypermethrin … These findings hinted that the pyrethroid insecticide beta-cypermethrin has the potential to mediate the interspecific competition between specialist and generalist aphids (at the sublethal concentration of LC5), and that it could influence aphid population growth and community structure in soybean crops. The recommended threshold to apply insecticide is 50% of cereal tillers have 15 or more aphids … 2007). McCarville, M. T., M. O’Neal, G. L. Tylka, C. Kanobe, and G. C. MacIntosh. Hodgson, E. W., E. C. Burkness, W. D. Hutchison, and D. W. Ragsdale. Publication E1878, Assessing the value and pest management window provided by neonicotinoid seed treatments for management of soybean aphid (, Pyrethroid resistance in insects: genes, mechanisms, and regulation, Insecticides: advances in integrated pest management, Soybean aphid-resistant soybean varieties for Iowa. In fields where pyrethroids failed to control soybean aphid, surviving (i.e., suspected resistant) aphids have sometimes been observed in patches within the field, which may be due to a mixture of aphid genotypes (e.g., Orantes et al. We also thank James Menger, Ian MacRae, Philip Glogoza, Anitha Chirumamilla, John Gavloski, Patrick Beauzay, and Lesley Lubenow for assistance with our survey efforts in 2017. 2010, Frewin et al. However, in an assessment of the susceptibility of soybean aphid populations from the North Central Region to the neonicotinoid, thiamethoxam, Ribeiro et al. Finally, if soybean is in bloom, consider insecticide options with reduced risk to pollinators (Zhu et al. Xi, J., Y. Pan, R. Bi, X. Gao, X. Chen, T. Peng, M. Zhang, H. Zhang, X. Hu, and Q. Shang. Thrips. Cypermethrin is a pyrethroid insecticide that mainly affects an insect’s central nervous system, used against a number of insect pests such as aphids, weevils, caterpillars, yellow cereal fly, flea beetles, … Sampling recommendations were developed and validated to estimate soybean aphid abundance (Hodgson et al. First, economically threatening infestations of soybean aphid continue to occur in Minnesota and portions of Iowa, North Dakota, and South Dakota (R.L.K., B.D.P., E.W.H., J.J.K., and A.J.V., personal observations), while such infestations have diminished in other parts of the United States (Bahlai et al. It is used to control chewing, sucking, and flying insects such as beetles, aphids, and other Lepidoptera. Application of insecticides for soybean aphid below the economic threshold is unlikely to provide economic benefit and will subject the pest to unnecessary insecticide exposure and allow further selection pressure for resistance (Koch et al. 2011, 2012). In contrast, recommendations for the use of mixtures are prominent in programs for herbicide resistance management (NRC 2012). Examples of foliar insecticides labeled for soybean aphid management1. Third, failure to use proper scouting methods and established thresholds for the determination of when to apply insecticides can result in aphids being exposed to insecticides more frequently than necessary. Insecticide resistance in soybean aphid has emerged as a new challenge to soybean production. A sublethal concentration of beta-cypermethrin (LC 5 for A. glycines) stimulated the reproduction of A. glycines but it did not impact the fecundity of A. solani. 3Insecticides are given as examples only and do not imply endorsement of one insecticide versus another nor discrimination against any insecticide not mentioned by the authors or the universities. Beta-cypermethrin, a synthetic pyrethroid pesticide, has a broad insecticide spectrum and is considered effective for aphid control, while its residual concentrations may have sublethal effects … Updated February 9, 2017 Economic Threshold: The recommended threshold for late vegetative through R5 stage soybeans is 250 aphids per plant (field average) with 80% of the plants infested and … And potential facilitation of soybean aphid able to survive on some aphid-resistant soybean varieties remains (... With varying levels of field-evolved resistance of soybean aphid have been well reviewed ( Ragsdale et al aphid be! 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